Diphtheria PDF

Corynebacterium diphtheriae b

Manual for Quality Control of Diphtheria, Tetanus and

Diphtheria - SlideShar

Classic diphtheria is an upper-respiratory tract illness characterized by sore throat, low-grade fever, and the production of a toxin that causes local cellular destruction of mucous membranes. The accumulated debris and fibrin results in the characteristic adheren diphtheriae is droplet spread from a person with respiratory diphtheria. Alternative modes of transmission are direct contact with cutaneous diphtheria lesions, infected secretions or infected.. Given the limited supply of equine Diphtheria Antitoxin (DAT), the mandate of the Ad Hoc Working Group is to propose options to ensure rapid provision, therefore the WG should review and explore mechanisms and strategies for production, supply and stockpiling. Objective Diphtheria is a bacterial infection that attacks the respiratory system. This occurs when pathogenic bacteria mucous membranes called Corynebacterium diphtheriae attach themselves to the lining of the respiratory system. The infection causes difficulty breathing and produces cold-like symptoms

Diphtheria.pdf - 1 Running Head THE THREAT OF DIPHTHERIA ..

  1. Diphtheria was once a greatly feared illness in the United States. In the 1920s, there were between 100,000 and 200,000 cases of diphtheria each year with 13,000-15,000 deaths. Because of widespread immu-nization and better living conditions, diphtheria is now rare in the United States (during 2004-2017, stat
  2. Diphtheria is an acute infection caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria spreads through respiratory droplets (such as from a cough or sneeze) of an infected person or someone who carries the bacteria but has no symptoms. The most common and visible symptom is a thick, gray coating on your throat and tonsils
  3. Diphtheria is an acute communicable upper respiratory illness caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, a Gram-positive bacillus. The illness is characterized by a membranous inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, usually of the pharynx but sometimes of the posterior nasal passages, larynx, and trachea, and by widespread damage to other organs, primarily the myocardium and peripheral nerves
  4. Clinical Description Diphtheria is an acute bacterial disease primarily involving the upper respiratory tract, cutaneous, or other mucous membranes (e.g., conjunctivae, vagina).The onset of disease is insidious and symptoms may initially be nonspecific with a moderate fever; however, symptoms may become severe with signs of toxicity, requiring treatment with Diphtheria Antitoxin (DAT)
  5. Workshop on Laboratory Diagnosis of Diphtheria, 11-13 October 2017 p. 3 5. General epidemiology of diphtheria Prior to the widespread use of diphtheria immunization, the disease was a major cause of death among children. The last largest outbreak in recent years took place in the Russian Federation in 1990
  6. Diphtheria is a transmissible bacterial disease primarily infecting the pharynx, larynx, tonsils and nose. Occasionally, the bacteria affects skin or mucous membranes including conjunctivae and vagina. The causative agents of diphtheria are mainly toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae transmitted via droplets during close contact
  7. Diphtheria is a clinical syndrome caused by an exotoxin produced by the bacterium . Corynebacterium diphtheriae; non-toxin-producing strains of . C. diphtheriae . are not associated with the syndrome but can cause localized inflammation. Most commonly, toxigenic i nfection results in respiratory or cutaneou

Diphtheria Norway PDF PPT Case Reports Symptoms

Despite the success of mass immunization in many countries, diphtheria continues to play a major role as a potentially lethal resurgent infectious disease. Early, accurate diagnosis is imperative since delay in specific therapy may result in death. The microbiologic diagnosis of the disease, the ide . Despite the success of mass immunization in. Diphtheria once was a major cause of illness and death among children. The United States recorded 206,000 cases of diphtheria in 1921, resulting in 15,520 deaths. Diphtheria death rates range from about 20% for those under age five and over age 40, to 5-10% for those aged 5-40 years. Death rates were likely higher before the 20 th century

Diphtheria - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Signs and symptoms may vary from mild to severe. They usually start two to five days after exposure. Symptoms often come on fairly gradually, beginning with a sore throat and fever. In severe cases, a grey or white patch develops in the throat Diphtheria The results showed that overall 87.8% of children below 12 years old were well im-munized against diphtheria and had a protec-tive level of diphtheria antibody (≥ 0.1 IU/ mL). The proportion of children who were protected against diphtheria was 83.3% among the children aged 2-4 years, 95.0% for the group 7-8 years and 85.0% for th

Diphtheria is endemic in many areas of the world and still occurs sporadically in the US. Early intervention by administering antitoxin is key to preventing systemic manifestations of the disease, which can include respiratory and neurological symptoms, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Prompt. Diphtheria is an acute illness caused by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The bacterium is gram-positive, non-spore-forming and non-capsulate. 1 The bacteria produce an exotoxin that acts locally on the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract or, less commonly, on damaged skin Diphtheria is usually diagnosed based on a patient's clinical presentation. Presumptive treatment is then started while further tests to confirm the diagnosis are performed

09. Diphtheria.pdf - Republic of the Philippines ..

  1. ation of toxin then invokes lesions in distant organs
  2. EN.pdf) and the expansion of immunization programmes in general, as well as the large accumulation of new knowledge since 1993, the decision was taken to update Diphtheria is a bacterial disease in which most of the clinical manifestations result from the action of an extracellular protein, exotoxin,.
  3. diphtheria component of this vaccine was discovered in 1923, so it's one of our oldest vaccines. And three doses of DTP in infancy will protect 95 to a 100 percent of people from diphtheria for at least 10 years. Those three doses are what we refer to as the primary series, and those are o
Imported Toxin-Producing Cutaneous Diphtheria — Minnesota

Facts About Diphtheria for Adults FACT: Diphtheria can be prevented with safe and effective vaccines. FACT: You cannot get diphtheria from the vaccine. FACT: Diphtheria is transmitted to others through close contact with discharges from an infected person's nose, throat, eyes and/or skin lesions. FACT: Nearly one out of every 10 people who get diphtheria will die from it Diphtheria vaccine Review of evidence on vaccine effectiveness and immunogenicity to assess the duration of protection ≥10 years after the last booster dose. April 2017 Background Disease Diphtheria is a disease caused by exotoxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheria or -les diphtheria in a person with an upper respiratory tract infection or infection at another site and at least one of the following: • Isolation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae with confirmation of toxin from an appropriate clinical specimen OR يﺮﺘﻔﻳد ﻲﻌﻄﻗ درﻮﻣ ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ ـ 3 Public health, (CA 2019

deadof diphtheria,andby Welchand Flexner2 inthetissues of animals that have succumbed to inoculation with the diphtheriavirus,we have detectedinseven autopsiesa condi-tion of the omentum that we propose to describe in this contribution. The animals uponwhich the experimentswere performed were guinea-pigs,and the cultures employedwerebuta fe diphtheria is on the rise in Malaysia, an economic analysis would inform policy on the public provision of booster diphtheria vaccination in adults. As diphtheria vaccines are part of the childhood immunisation programme, the occurrence of diphtheria in this country signals a break in vaccine coverage that needs to be addressed

Current approaches to the laboratory diagnosis of diphtheri

  1. Corynebacterium diphtheriae. C. diphtheriae is an aerobic, gram-positive bacillus. Toxin production (toxigenicity) occurs only when the bacillus is itself infected (lysogenized) by specific viruses (corynebacteriophages) carrying the genetic information for the toxin (tox gene).Diphtheria toxin causes the local and systemic manifestations of diphtheria
  2. Diphtheria 1. Dr. RAJALEKSHMY.P.R DEPT: OF SWASTHAVRITTA AMRITA SCHOOL OF AYURVEDA 2. INTRODUCTION Acute infectious disease caused by toxigenic strains of Coryne bacterium diphtheriae. 3 major clinical types-anterior nasal, faucial, laryngeal Skin, conjunctiva, vulva and other parts may be affected. Bacilli multiply locally in throat and produce powerful exotoxin
  3. Diphtheria is a paradigm of the toxigenic infectious diseases. In 1883, Klebs demonstrated that Corynebacterium diphtheriae was the agent of diphtheria. One year later, Loeffler found that the organism could only be cultured from the nasopharyngeal cavity, and postulated that the damage to internal organs resulted from a soluble toxin. By 1888, Roux and Yersin showed that animals injected with.
  4. Diphtheria toxin (DT) is one of the most studied molecules, demonstrating compelling activity as a suicide gene therapeutic reagent. It efficiently ADP-ribosylates elongation factor-2 (EF-2) and thus blocks the translational machinery of target cells. It is estimated that a single molecule of diphtheria toxin can kill target cells, and many studies have successfully used its toxicity to.
  5. 4. What is Diphtheria• An infection of local tissue of URT with production of toxin which causes systemic effects on Heart and Peripheral tissues, Dr.T.V.Rao MD 4. 5. Definition• Diphtheria is an acute, toxin- mediated disease caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheria.•
  6. ation of toxin then invokes lesions in distant organs

History of Diphtheria - Timeline History of Vaccine

Diphtheria - Wikipedi

(diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine [DTaP]) was first licensed for use in children for the fourth and fifth doses of the 5-dose childhood vaccination series in the United States (21,22), and in 1996, pediatric DTaP was licensed for the first three infant doses (1). In 1997 Diphtheria is a potentially fatal infection mostly caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains and occasionally by toxigenic C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis strains. Diphtheria. 6.1. Bacteriology. Diphtheria is a serious, often fatal, toxin-mediated disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, a non-sporulating, non-encapsulated, gram-positive bacillus.Rarely, it may also be caused by other toxin-carrying Corynebacteria species, such as Corynebacterium ulcerans.Both toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains can occur during outbreaks, during which non-toxigenic strains. Cutaneous diphtheria is a potential risk factor for transmission of diphtheria. Most refugees who arrive in Europe are from endemic countries and have travelled under conditions that increase the risk of acquiring cutaneous diphtheria, and many of them continue to be exposed to over-crowding and poor hygiene once they have arrived in the EU Diphtheria. is an acute disease caused by the exotoxin-producing bacterium, Corynebacterium diphtheriae. In non-immune persons of all ages, symptoms of diphtheria typically occur after an incubation period of 1 to 5 days. The onset is characterized by the gradual dev elopment of a low to moderate fever and a mild, exudative pharyngitis

Introduced for mass immunization in the 1920s, vaccines against diphtheria are among the oldest and safest vaccines known. The basic principle of their production is the inactivation of purified diphtheria toxin by formaldehyde cross-linking, which converts the potentially fatal toxin in a completely harmless protein aggregate, which is still immunogenic C. diphtheriae assemblies from Refseq (n=24). • An additional assembly, GCA_900312965.1, representing the type strain of the recently proposed C. diphtheriae subsp. lausannense subsp. nov, was also included. • Plasmid sequences were removed. • A cgMLST scheme was generated and alleles called with chewBBACA, an open-source tool designed. NDC 14362-0111-3 NDC 14362-0111-4 TETANUS AND DIPHTHERIA TOXOIDS ADSORBED TDVAX™ Rx Only DESCRIPTION TDVAX™ manufactured by MassBiologics is a sterile vaccine for intramuscular injection

Diphtheria is a bacterial infection that affects the membranes of the throat and nose. Although it spreads easily, diphtheria can be prevented through the use of vaccines. If left untreated, diphtheria can cause severe damage to your kidneys, nervous system, and heart. According to the Mayo Clinic, diphtheria is fatal in about 10 percent of cases Diphtheria is a highly contagious and potentially fatal infection that can affect the nose and throat, and sometimes the skin. It's rare in the UK, but there's a small risk of catching it while travelling in some parts of the world. Diphtheria vaccination. Diphtheria is rare in the UK because babies and children are routinely vaccinated against it Diphtheria is a contagious and potentially life-threatening bacterial infection caused by toxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans. Diphtheria was a common cause of death in children up until the 1940s but has now almost disappeared in Australia due to immunisation

View as PDF Send by post Diphtheria is a contagious and potentially life-threatening infection caused by a toxin (poison) made by bacteria. Cases of diphtheria are rare in Australia due to the introduction of an effective vaccine, but a century ago diphtheria was the most common infectious cause of death Diphtheria caused by C. ulcerans was reported by five countries. More than half of these cases were reported in France and Germany. Between 2013 and 2017, 223 cases of diphtheria were reported in the EU/EEA, of which 1 31 cases were due to C. diphtheriae. Table 1. Number of diphtheria cases by country and year, EU/EEA, 2013 -201 Prevention and control of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Active immunization in childhood with diphtheria toxoid yields antitoxin levels that are generally adequate until adulthood. Diphtheria toxoids are commonly combined with tetanus toxoid (Td) and with a cellular pertussis vaccine (DaPT) as a single injection to be used in initial. Diphtheria is a transmissible bacterial disease primarily infecting the pharynx, larynx, tonsils and nose. Occasionally, the bacteria affect skin or mucous membranes including conjunctivae and vagina. Corynebacterium diphtheriae is transmitted via direct contact with respiratory secretions or with exudate from infected cutaneous lesions Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the etiologic agent of human respiratory and cutaneous diphtheria. There are 3 biotypes (mitis, gravis, and intermedius) of C. diphtheriae, each differentiated by hemolysis, colonial morphology, and fermentative reactions. Diagnosis is made by identifying the microorganism in cultures from swabs of the nasopharynx.

Diphtheria - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment BMJ Best

  1. Diphtheria, acute infectious disease caused by the bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae and characterized by a primary lesion, usually in the upper respiratory tract, and more generalized symptoms resulting from the spread of the bacterial toxin throughout the body. Diphtheria was a serious contagious disease throughout much of the world until the late 19th century, when its incidence in.
  2. diphtheria virus. Behring and Kitisato have shown that in the serum of a diphtheria-immune rabbit, there is an element which does not destroy the diphtheria bacillus, but destroys the poison engendered by that microbe. This leads to a new theory of immunity, which Hankin thus states :— Immunity, whether natural or acquired, is due to the.
  3. Diphtheria caused by C. ulcerans was reported by seven countries; more than half of all cases were reported in Belgium and Germany (Table 2). Between 2012 and 2016, 216 cases of diphtheria were reported in the EU/EEA, 134 of which were due to C. diphtheriae. The number of cases due to C. diphtheriae reported over the last five years increased.
  4. istration of BOOSTRIX [see Description (11)]. Because of the uncertainty as to which component of the vaccine might be responsible, none of the components should be ad
  5. istering antitoxin is key to preventing systemic manifestations of the disease, which can include respiratory and neurologic symptoms, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Prompt ad..

C diphtheria is responsible for both endemic and epidemic diseases, and it was first described in the 5th century BC by Hippocrates. Diphtheria manifests as either an upper respiratory tract or cutaneous infection and is caused by the aerobic gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterium diphtheria Diphtheria-containing vaccines can be given at the same time as other vaccines such as MMR, MenC and hepatitis B. The vaccines should be given at a separate site, preferably in a different limb. If given in the same limb, they should be given at least 2.5cm apart (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2003) Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis Vaccine Information Statement. Tell your vaccine provider if the person getting the vaccine: Has had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of any vaccine that protects against tetanus, diphtheria, or pertussis, or has any severe, life-threatening allergies.; Has had a coma, decreased level of consciousness, or prolonged seizures within 7 days after a. VAXELIS (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, Haemophilus b Conjugate and Hepatitis B Vaccine) is a vaccine indicated for active immunization to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B, and invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) DIPHTHERIA — page 2 b. Contact: has had face-to-face contact to a case within 5 days of case's onset. c. Carrier: is an asymptomatic primary contact with positive culture. d. Chronic carrier: has been free from the symptoms of diphtheria for 4 weeks or longer and who harbors virulent diphtheria bacilli. Consider as a case

Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diptheriae. There are two types of diphtheria; one type affects the respiratory tract and the other affects the skin. The most common type affects the tonsils, throat, or nose. Diphtheria is a rare disease in the United States primarily due to widespread immunization Diphtheria occurs worldwide, particularly in tropical countries. It is a rare disease in industrialized countries with active immunization programs. In the U.S., from 1995 to 2015, 14 cases were reported; the median age was 28 years (range: Diphtheria Guide to Surveillance and Investigation Last Revised: June 22, 2012 Florida Department of Health Page 5 of 9 An upper-respiratory tract illness characterized by sore throat, low-grade fever, and an adherent membrane of the tonsil(s), pharynx, and/or nose . B. Laboratory criteria for diagnosis.

Diphtheria The Australian Immunisation Handboo

Diphtheria toxin is the definitive characteristic of pathogenic C. diphtheriae, isolates will be sent to CDC for toxin testing. The CDC does request that all isolates of C. diphtheriae regardless of association with disease be sent to the CDC Diphtheria Laboratory fo Diphtheria Outbreak Control Guidelines July 2011 Page 4 of 7 Diagnostic tests used to confirm infection include isolation of C. diphtheriae on culture and toxigenicity testing. Although no other tests for diagnosing diphtheria are commercially available, Wadsworth Center and CDC can perform a PCR tes

WHO | Diphtheria-Tetanus (for adults) (10 dose vial)

[From The Johns Hopkins HospitalBulletin, No. 11, February-Mareh,1891.] THE ETIOLOGY OF DIPHTHERIA. By Professor WilliamH.Welch, M.D., and Alexander C. Abbott, M.D. In 1884Loffler, inan articlepublished the second volume of the Mittheilungen aus demKaiserlichen Gesundheitsamte, con- cluded from the bacteriological examination ofa largenumber ofcases of diphtheria that aspecies of bacillus. Diphtheria has become increasingly rare in England due to the introduction of mass immunisation in 1942, when the average annual number of cases was about 60,000 with 4,000 deaths [1]. Diphtheria vaccine is made from inactivated diphtheria toxin and protects individuals from the effects of toxin-producing corynebacteria A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence... | Explore the latest full-text research PDFs. Given a previous lack of global guidance on diphtheria-containing booster doses after the 3-dose primary series, a wide variety of schedules had been adopted by different countries as of 2018 (10-12).Twenty-four percent of countries used the 3-dose series alone, and other countries offered 1-3 booster doses on varying schedules; 24% of countries also included > 1 adult booster doses.

MORPHOLOGY OF CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. Shape - Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a Thin, slender rod-shaped (bacillus) bacterium with a tendency to clubbing at one or both the ends due to the presence of metachromatic granules which may present at one or both the ends.. Size - The size of Corynebacterium diphtheriae rods is about 3-6 µm × 0.6-0.8 µm More recently, reported cases of diphtheria of all types declined from 306 in 1975 to 59 in 1979; most were cutaneous diphtheria reported from a single state. After 1979, cutaneous diphtheria was no longer reportable.3 From 1980 through 2000, 51 cases of diphtheria were reported in the US. During the period 1980-1996, six fatal cases of diphtheria

Diphtheria Diagnosis - Medica

Diphtheria. Diphtheria is an acute bacterial disease that usually affects the tonsils, throat, nose, and/or skin. The disease is passed from person to person by droplet transmission, usually by breathing in bacteria after an infected person has coughed, sneezed, or even laughed. It can also be spread by handling used tissues or by drinking from. Diphtheria toxin produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects. A milder form of diphtheria can be restricted to the skin. Diphtheria is a contagious disease spread by direct physical contact or breathing aerosolized secretions of infected individuals Objective: To assess the safety of currently licensed diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in the United States by using data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a spontaneous reporting surveillance system. Methods: We searched VAERS for US reports of DTaP vaccinations occurring from January 1, 1991, through December 31, 2016, and received by March 17, 2017 Since the introduction of mass immunization and the resulting decline in diphtheria incidence, there are mixed views in many countries concerning the need and necessity for laboratories to screen routinely for Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative organism of diphtheria. The rarity of cases and the expense and complexity associated with laboratory diagnosis provided many countries with. Diphtheria. Diphtheria is an acute bacterial disease that usually affects the tonsils, throat, nose, or skin. Although respiratory diphtheria is endemic in many parts of the world, it is very rarely seen in the United States. Unimmunized or incompletely immunized travelers can contract diphtheria when visiting endemic areas

Pathology of Diphtheria The Journal of Infectious

C. ulcerans as well as C. diphtheriae can cause respiratory diphtheria, but this is rare 2,3. Eighteen isolates of toxigenic C. diphtheriae were referred to the PHLS Streptococcus and Diphtheria Reference Unit (SDRU) from within the UK between 1993 and 1998 (table 1). One was from a 14 year old boy who had travelled from Pakistan to the UK and. Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (dTpa) Fact Sheet Diphtheria is a serious communicable bacterial disease that causes severe inflammation of the nose, throat and windpipe (trachea). It is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The bacteria produce toxins that cause an abnormal membrane to grow in the throat, which can lead to.

Fillable Immunization Record printable pdf downloadFillable Certificate Of Immunization Form - ColoradoCombined Tetanus, Diphtheria, and 5-Component PertussisTetanus: MedlinePlus

The Immunological Basis for Immunization Serie

Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which most commonly infects the nose and throat. The throat infection causes a gray to black, tough, fiber-like covering, which can block the airways Recommendations for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and combined vaccines (Amendments 2003) Introduction These amendments should be read in conjunction with the introduc­ tion to the Requirements for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and com­ bined vaccines published in WHO Technical Report Series, No. 800, 1990 (Annex 2) Diphtheria is a serious illness. Doctors treat it immediately and aggressively. Treatments include: Antibiotics. Antibiotics, such as penicillin or erythromycin, help kill bacteria in the body, clearing up infections. Antibiotics cut the time that someone with diphtheria is contagious. An antitoxin diphtheria and that low vaccine effectiveness was not a primary cause of the diphtheria epidemic in Russia. We found a vaccine effectiveness rate of 97% for the Russian-produced diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccines for three or more doses, compared with zero doses, among children 6 months to 14 years of ag Diphtheria vaccine is a toxoid vaccine against diphtheria, an illness caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Its use has resulted in a more than 90% decrease in number of cases globally between 1980 and 2000. The first dose is recommended at six weeks of age with two additional doses four weeks apart, after which it is about 95% effective during childhood

Clinical samples (swabs, pieces of membrane, biopsy tissue) can be transported to the CDC with cold packs in a sterile empty container or in silica gel sachets. For detailed information on specimen collection and shipping and to arrange PCR testing, the state health department may contact the CDC diphtheria laboratory at (404) 639-1730 or (404. Diphtheria toxin is an exotoxin secreted by Corynebacterium, the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. The toxin gene is encoded by a prophage [annotation 1] called corynephage β . [1] [2] The toxin causes the disease in humans by gaining entry into the cell cytoplasm and inhibiting protein synthesis Indicated Tetanus and Diphtheria Booster Vaccination If a Td booster vaccination is indicated during pregnancy (ie, more than 10 years since the previous Td vaccination) then obstetrician-gynecologists and other health care providers should administer the Tdap vaccine during pregnancy within the 27-36-weeks-of-gestation window 7 Identify what diphtheria is and the bacterium responsible for causing it Recall how the diphtheriae toxin infects cells and how it is spread Review the symptoms of diphtheria such as fever, chills. Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the leading causing agent of diphtheria. It is a non-motile, non-encapsulated, non-sporulating gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium with a high GC-content and occurs in four biovars: gravis, mitis, intermedius, and belfanti, based on colonial morphology and biochemical profiles. Microscopically, corynebacteria have.

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