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Pathogenesis of polyarteritis nodosa

Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN): Pathogenesis and Clinical Findings | Calgary Guide. Rheumatology. Vasculitis. Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN): Pathogenesis and Clinical Findings The pathogenesis of the vascular lesions of polyarteritis nodosa found in young rats with experimental renal hypertension is described. The panarteritic lesion was a product of the combination of re The pathogenesis Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis predominantly targeting medium-sized arteries. PAN is a rare form of vasculitis, and the precise frequency of this disease is difficult to determine. The major environmental factor associated with PAN is HBV infection

The heart in polyarteritis nodosa - wikidoc

Guillevin L, Mahr A, Cohen P, et al. Short-term corticosteroids then lamivudine and plasma exchanges to treat hepatitis B virus-related polyarteritis nodosa. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jun 15. 51(3):482-7 Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is characterized by fibrinoid necrosis of the arterial wall with a leukocytic infiltrate. In this slide, a large, pale occlusion of a muscular artery can be seen. Within.

[Pathogenesis of periarteritis nodosa]. [Article in Russian] Cherfas ZM, Magalif NI, Isakbaeva SE, Snetkova NB. PMID: 4400916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: Case Reports; MeSH Terms. Adult; Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Polyarteritis Nodosa/chemically induced; Polyarteritis Nodosa/etiology Pathophysiology Pathogenesis. Polyarteritis nodosa is a disease of unknown cause that affects arteries, the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to organs and tissues. PAN affects the medium sized arterial vessels. Most commonly occurs at the branching vessels and bifurcation points. PAN does not affect: Large vessels like aorta. Capillarie Classic polyarteritis nodosa (PAN or c-PAN) is a systemic vasculitis characterized by necrotizing inflammatory lesions that affect medium-sized and small muscular arteries, preferentially at vessel bifurcations, resulting in microaneurysm formation, aneurysmal rupture with hemorrhage, thrombosis, and, consequently, organ ischemia or infarctio.. Polyarteritis nodosa, is a systemic necrotizing inflammation of blood vessels affecting medium-sized muscular arteries, typically involving the arteries of the kidneys and other internal organs but generally sparing the lungs' circulation. Polyarteritis nodosa may be present in infants. In polyarteritis nodosa, small aneurysms are strung like the beads of a rosary, therefore making rosary sign an important diagnostic feature of the vasculitis. PAN is sometimes associated with infection by th Due to the ubiquity of blood vessels, the occlusion or rupture ofthe inflamed arteries may produce tissue ischemia or hemorrhagein a variety of organs and systems. Consequently PAN may generate Table 1 Main clinical manifestations of patients with polyarteritis nodosa[4,15,16]

Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN): Pathogenesis and Clinical

  1. imal clinical symptoms, presentation can be dramatic when seen with advanced imaging techniques that show aneurysm rupture and hemorrhage. A 59-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with abdo
  2. Numerous extrahepatic manifestations have been reported in patients with both acute and chronic hepatitis B (arthralgias or arthritis, skin rashes, glomerulonephritis and neuritis), all of which are present in polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) which is the most unique and spectacular extrahepatic manifestation
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  4. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a blood vessel disease characterized by inflammation of small and medium-sized arteries ( vasculitis ), preventing them from bringing oxygen and food to organs. [1] [2] Most cases occur in the 4th or 5th decade of life, although it can occur at any age. [3] PAN most commonly affects vessels related to the skin, joints,.
  5. Proceedings: Hepatitis B, immune complexes, and the pathogenesis of polyarteritis nodosa. Zuckerman AJ. PMCID: PMC475966 PMID: 2625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH Terms. Antigen-Antibody Complex* Cell Membrane/immunology; Hepatitis B Antigens* Humans; Polyarteritis Nodosa/etiology* Substances. Antigen-Antibody Complex; Hepatitis B Antigen
  6. Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that typically affects medium-sized muscular arteries and occasionally affects small muscular arteries, resulting in secondary tissue ischemia. The kidneys, skin, joints, muscles, peripheral nerves, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract are most commonly affected but any organ can be

Pathogenesis of Polyarteritis Nodosa in Hypertensive Rats

1. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) 2. Vasculitides classification by blood vessel size. 4. PAN 1866 periarteritis nodosa used to describe any form of systemic vasculitis. Vasculitis predominantly affecting medium arteries defined as the main visceral arteries and their branches. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) = Necrotizing arteritis of medium. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare form of systemic vasculitis that affects only medium-sized vessels (i.e., small and medium-sized arteries). Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related PAN has become very rare since the introduction of effective immunization programs against the virus

Necrotizing vasculitis is a classic lesion of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) and a number of other disorders. This Perspectives article discusses how the characterization and understanding of PAN and. Polyarteritis Nodosa is characterized by a necrotizing inflammation of the entire vascular wall which develops in a segmental pattern. Initially, the inflammatory infiltrate is largely neutrophilic but evolves to one dominated my mononuclear cells. Fibrinoid necrosis is frequently observed which can weaken the vascular wall and thus render it prone to aneurysmal dilations and in some cases. Pathophysiology of Polyarteritis Nodosa. PAN is an immune-complex disease, without any known relationship with autoantibodies. Some etiological agents have been identified: HBV for PAN and hepatitis C virus for cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, another immune-complex vasculitis. It is most likely that other, still unidentified pathogens, probably. Europe PMC is an archive of life sciences journal literature. [Development of views on the etiology and pathogenesis of polyarteritis nodosa (100th anniversary of the 1st report)

Definition/Description. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), also known as periarteritis nodosa or Kussmaul-Maier disease, is a serious ideopathic vascular disease that commonly affects both small and medium-sized arteries throughout the body. It falls under the category of primary systemic vasculitis, and more specifically as a necrotizing inflammation. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a multisystemic disease char-acterized by involvement of medium size and small muscular arteries throughout the body. In its classical form, pathogenesis of the disease. It has been suggested that the endothelial cell disruption that occurs as part of vasculiti Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare form of systemic vasculitis that affects only medium-sized vessels (i.e., small and medium-sized arteries). Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related PAN has become very rare since the introduction of effective immunisation programmes against the virus. Both non-HBV-rel.. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that typically affects medium-sized muscular arteries, with occasional involvement of small muscular arteries. The spectrum of disease known as PAN has evolved and narrowed substantially due to the identification and classification of other forms of vasculitis that had previously.

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a disease charac- terized by a necrotizing vasculitis of small-to-medium arteries with aneursymal dilatation. In the majority of cases, the etiology is unknown. Environmental agents, including hepatitis B and cytomegalovirus infection, have been implicated (1,2). A genetic predisposition t Polyarteritis nodosa is an autoimmune disease that affects arteries. Common areas affected include the muscles, joints, intestines (bowels), nerves, kidneys, and skin. Diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa is confirmed by a biopsy of involved tissue or angiography. Treatment is directed toward decreasing the inflammation of the arteries Polyarteritis nodosa, also called periarteritis nodosa, inflammation of blood vessels and surrounding tissue; it may affect functioning of adjacent organs. The cause of polyarteritis nodosa is unknown. The word nodosa (knotty) forms part of the name because of the fibrous nodules along the medium-sized arteries that are affected. The course and symptoms of the disease vary

Polyarteritis nodosa). The individual components of polyarteritis nodosa (e.g., inflammation, vascular necrosis, fibrosis) should not be diagnosed separately unless they are considered lesions of a differing pathogenesis in animals with polyarteritis nodosa. The pathologist should attempt to differentiat Three observations., however, favour the hypothesis that cell-mediated immune reactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic active hepatitis and polyarteritis nodosa: (a) hepatitis may progress to cirrhosis, presumably through an intervening stage of chronic hepatitis, in patients with agammaglobulinx- mia 22; ; (b. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare disease, with an incidence of about 3 to 4.5 cases per 100,000 people annually in the United States (about 1 in 22,000 to 1 in 33,000 people). Internationally, the annual estimated incidence of PAN ranges from 1.6 cases per million in south Sweden, for example, to 30.7 cases per million adults in Paris The treatment of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) depends on the severity of illness: Mild disease with constitutional symptoms but no end-organ damage: Oral prednisone (1mg/kg body weight). Mild disease but resistant to or intolerant to of required dose of glucocorticoids: Addition of azathioprine or methotrexate to a tolerable dose of glucocorticoids Abstract. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare systemic necrotizing vasculitis predominantly affecting the medium-sized arteries with widely variable presenting features, disease course, and outcomes. Recent updates regarding the nomenclature of PAN have resulted in the description of several PAN sub-phenotypes

Polyarteritis nodosa: A contemporary overvie

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of humans affecting small- and medium-sized arteries. 6,8,12 Renal arteries are most commonly affected, with involvement of other visceral arteries and relative sparing of the lungs. Areas of arterial branching are predilection sites, and the inflammation often results in grossly visible nodular thickening of affected arteries Pathogenesis is unclear. In HBV-associated PAN, circulating immune complexes deposited in vessel walls may play a role. Forbess, L, Bannykh, S. Polyarteritis Nodosa. Rheumatic Diseases. arteritis nodosa. These authors used the term pararheumaticarthropathytodescribesuchcases, implying, presumably, that the joint changes are based on articular polyarteritis nodosa, though no histological evidence of this is presented in their paper. Unfortunately, histological studies ofthearticular tissues in polyarteritis nodosa are.

What is the pathogenesis of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) in

Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPN) It is well known that the pathogenesis of LV involves coagulation abnormalities such as decreased levels of activated protein C or increased levels of fibrinopeptide A. 6 Its diagnosis must fulfill both clinical and histological criteria in the absence of signs or symptoms of systemic involvement Polyarteritis nodosa may present with ophthalmologic symptoms like retinal vasculitis, retinal detachment and cotton-wool spots. Cardiovascular examination of patients with polyarteritis nodosa shows hypertension, tachycardia, pericardial friction rub, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure Polyarteritis nodosa and extrahepatic manifestations of HBV infection: the case against autoimmune intervention in pathogenesis. Trepo C , Guillevin L J Autoimmun , 16(3):269-274, 01 May 200 DOI: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.1635 Corpus ID: 17424216. Dermatologic Features of ADA2 Deficiency in Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa. @article{Santiago2015DermatologicFO, title={Dermatologic Features of ADA2 Deficiency in Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa.}, author={Tania M Gonzalez Santiago and A. Zavialov and J. Saarela and M. Seppanen and A. Reed and R. Abraham and L. Gibson}, journal={JAMA. In this regard, tocilizumab, a biologic agent targeting IL-6 receptor, has shown its efficacy in a variety of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, adult-onset Still's disease, large-vessel vasculitis and Behcet's disease.2-5 Although the precise pathogenesis of polyarteritis nodosa remains unclear, serum IL-6 levels correlate with.

Background Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis with a pathogenesis that is poorly understood. We identified six families with multiple cases of systemic and cutaneous polyarte.. A new autoinflammatory disease, deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2), caused by mutations in the CECR1 gene, was first reported in 2014. This review aims to update progress in defining, treating, and understanding this multi-faceted disorder. DADA2 was first described in patients with systemic inflammation, mild immune deficiency, and vasculopathy manifested as recurrent stroke or. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a necrotizing arteritis predominantly involving medium and small muscular arteries, without glomerulonephritis or vasculitis in arterioles, capillaries, or venules [1, 2].Because arteries are distributed ubiquitously throughout the body, PAN may affect a variety of organs and systems; frequently involved organs and systems include the peripheral nervous system.

What is the pathophysiology of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN)

Pathology Review-Term1

IMPORTANCE: Mutations in the CERC1 gene associated with deficiency in the ADA2 protein (DADA2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (cPAN) and early-onset vasculopathy. DADA2 is not only limited to cPAN and vasculopathy but also includes immunodeficiency that affects several cellular compartments, including. Pathogenesis of polyarteritis nodosa. Thickening of inflamed vessel wall, plus intimal proliferation leads to narrow lumen - Predisposes to thrombotic events - Aneurysm (from weakened inflamed wall) Cellular infiltrates at areas of inflammation European study: 1/3 of PAN cases associated with HBV infections Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPAN) is a rare diagnosis which is distinct from polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). PAN is a medium-vessel vasculitis which can affect multiple organs and classically produces microaneurysms in the vasculature. CPAN is limited to the skin mainly affecting small vessels. There is an absence of microaneurysms in CPAN and it does not affect internal organs Zurück zum Zitat Mahr A, Guillevin L, Poissonnet M, Aymé S (2004) Prevalences of polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, Wegener's granulomatosis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome in a French urban multiethnic population in 2000: a capture-recapture estimate

[Pathogenesis of periarteritis nodosa]

polyarteritis nodosa pathophysiology + polyarteritis nodosa pathophysiology 29 Apr 2021 Secondary osteoarthritis can be from a direct trauma to the area, such as a sports=related injury or something like a motor vehicle accident. polyarteritis nodosa pathophysiology Finger arthritis afflicts millions of Americans, but there are ways to. polyarteritis nodosa pathophysiology + polyarteritis nodosa pathophysiology 10 Apr 2021 Up to 90% of people with this condition will report associated foot problems. warmth and swelling (a flare) of one or more foot joints that lasts a few days or longer, joints' in the forefoot, the 'subtalar' joint and less commonly, the ankle joint yarteritis nodosa. Immunosuppressive therapy was started with administration of prednisone. Discussion Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a progressive inflammatory vasculitis of small- and medium-sized arteries that leads to necrosis and destruction of the wall of vessels. Thus, PAN belongs to the pathologic group of necrotizing vasculitis whic

Polyarteritis nodosa pathophysiology - wikido

Polyarteritis nodosa

Polyarteritis Nodosa Clinical Presentation: History

Pediatric polyarteritis nodosa is rare systemic necrotizing arteritis involving small- and medium-sized muscular arteries characterized by aneurysmal dilatations involving the vessel wall. Aneurysms associated with polyarteritis nodosa are common in visceral arteries; however intracranial aneurysms have also been reported and can be associated with central nervous system symptoms, significant. Almost immediately satisfactorily define polyarteritis on a pathologic, etio- following Kussmaul and Maier's original description of logic or immunologic basis alone, and a careful balance polyarteritis nodosa [18], controversy began as to the of all three is appropriate until further refinement of nature of the disease [19,26] The pathogenesis of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is unknown, and no animal model is available for study. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is strongly linked with PAN. Evidence for immune complex-induced disease is confined to HBV-related PAN; the role of immune complexes in non-HBV-related PAN remains unclear

TUMORS, ANEURYSMS, VASCULITIS

1990 American College of Rheumatology Classification Criteria for Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) Weight loss > 4 kg: loss of ≥ 4 kg since illness began not due to other factors.; Livedo reticularis: mottled reticular pattern on extremities or torso.; Testicular pain or tenderness: not due to infections, trauma or other causes.; Myalgias, weakness or leg tenderness: diffuse myalgia (excluding. Basics. Description. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-negative necrotizing arteritis of medium-sized muscular arteries and (occasionally) small arteries. Arterioles, capillaries, and venules are spared ( 1 ). Involved systems include gastrointestinal (GI) tract, peripheral nervous system (sensory and. NeuroradiologicFindingsinPolyarteritisNodosa JamesM.ProvenzaleandNancyB.Allen PURPOSE: To demonstrate the neuroradiologic findings in patients with polyarteritis.

Polyarteritis nodosa - Wikipedi

Summary: A 9-year-old Haitian girl presented initially with monocular blindness and an isolated temporal arteritis, confirmed by angiographic studies and temporal artery biopsy findings. CT and MR studies of the intracranial circulation showed only an enlarged, dense superficial temporal artery. Systemic workup revealed a mildly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mild changes in white. Polyarteritis nodosa is usually fatal if untreated, often as a result of progressive renal failure or gastrointestinal complications. Prompt treatment with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide may result in remission, and a remission/cure can be achieved in 90% of patients 3 Systemic polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) patients may have fever, malaise, and signs or symptoms similar to other patients with systemic vasculitis. Pulmonary signs or symptoms are not as common in PAN as in the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmanic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitides Polyarteritis nodosa and extrahepatic manifestations of HBV infection: The case against autoimmune intervention in pathogenesis. J Autoimmun 16 , 269-74 . Trepo , C. , Thivolet , J. 1970

Polyarteritis Nodosa John H. Stone, MD, MPH CASE PRESENTATION A 30-year-old man was referred for evaluation and treatment of Still dis-ease. His illness had begun 12 years earlier when, as a high school senior, he developed daily temperatures of 38.4°C to 38.9°C. Following an exten-sive evaluation, he was given the diag Epidemiology of Polyarteritis Nodosa Age: 20-70 years-old No racial or ethnic predilection Incidence 2-4/1,000,000 annual incidence 70-80/1,000,000/ in regions which are endemic for Hepatitis B Hepatitis B Virus Association Usually occurs during the first 6 months after infection Usually positive for HBAg s and e antige Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) is a very rare relapsing vasculitic disease which affects medium sized blood vessels, such as those supplying the kidneys and bowel. It can affect all ages although there may be differences in the main symptoms between children and adults. Men and women are almost equally affected Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare disease that results from blood vessel inflammation (vasculitis) causing injury to organ systems. The areas most commonly affected by PAN include the nerves, intestinal tract, heart, and joints

Polyarteritis nodosa.OrthopaedicsOne Articles.In: OrthopaedicsOne - The Orthopaedic Knowledge Network.Created Nov 10, 2011 14:32. Last modified Aug 23, 2014 14:57 ver. Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis with a pathogenesis that is poorly understood. We identified six families with multiple cases of systemic and cutaneous polyarteritis.

Polyarteritis Nodosa The Journal of Rheumatolog

• Benign cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa has been described as having a benign course in contrast to that of systemic classic polyarteritis nodosa. We tested the hypothesis that this histologic distinction is false by reviewing nine consecutive cases with the histologic diagnosis of benign cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa Microscopic findings in polyarteritis nodosa: nodular thickened and branched arteries from small bowel mucosa (Fig. 1), flexor digitorum superficialis artery with early diffuse nuclear proliferation (Fig. 2), nodular thickened and aneurysmal expanded artery: (a) tunica intima, (b) tunica media, (c) tunica adventitia, (d) newly formed connective.

Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), first described by Küssmaul and Maier, is a well-known form of necrotizing angiitis whose manifestations are weight loss, fever, asthenia, peripheral neuropathy, renal involvement, musculoskeletal and cutaneous manifestations, hypertension, gastrointestinal tract involvement, and cardiac failure Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare multi-system disorder characterized by widespread inflammation, weakening, and damage to small and medium-sized arteries. Blood vessels in any organ or organ system may be affected, including those supplying the kidneys, heart, intestine, nervous system, and/or skeletal muscles pathogenesis of polyarteritis nodosa and what people with pan are at higher risk of. thickening of inflamed vessel wall and intima inflammation leads to narrowing of lumen-higher risk of annuerism or thrombotic events. Polyarteritis nodosa is associated with what virus. hep b (HBV Polyarteritis nodosa is a form of vasculitis that affects both small and medium-sized blood vessels. The condition causes inflammation of the blood vessels, and it damages organs, including the heart. Polyarteritis nodosa commonly causes joint, nerve, and intestinal damage as well. While the disease can occur in individuals of any age, it is. Polyarteritis nodosa causes inflammation of the blood vessels, which can lead to infarction, ulceration, or aneurysm formation anywhere the disease process is taking place. These vessel changes are reflected on arteriogram as multiple aneurysms and constrictions. Polyarteritis nodosa can affect renal arteries and damage the kidneys

Polyarteritis nodosa refers to the condition resulting from inflammation of small and medium-sized arteries. It may affect many organs and can be life threatening in some cases. Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN): Pathogenesis and Clinical Findings C. Polyarteritis nodosa D. Multiple AVMs LearningRadiology.com is a non-commercial site aimed primarily at medical students and radiology residents-in-training, containing PowerPoint lectures, handouts, images, Cases of the Week, archives of case quizzes, flashcards of differential.

Introduction. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic vasculitis that mostly involves medium sized arteries, and sometimes involves small arteries 1.The prevalence of PAN is estimated to be 2 to 33 million individuals 2,3.The annual incidence in some areas of Europe estimate 4.4 to 9.7 per million population 4.The diagnosis is most commonly made in middle-aged or older adults and increases. Bijv. bij verpleegkundigen, om beroepsredenen (soms verplicht) gevaccineerd tegen hepatitis B, wordt het ontstaan van polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) na een vaccinatie tegen hepatitis B, behandeld als een arbeidsongeval. België heeft op vandaag (januari 2014) echter nog geen compensatiefonds voor dergelijke vaccinatie-ongevallen

Polyarteritis Nodosa and Extrahepatic Manifestations of

The term periarteritis nodosa was used in the 19th century to describe any form of systemic vasculitis without a known cause.[] Since then, the name has changed to polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) and the definition has been refined to: Necrotizing inflammation of medium-sized or small arteries without glomerulonephritis or vasculitis in arterioles, capillaries, or venules Microscopic polyangiitis. Other names. Micropolyangiitis. Specialty. Immunology, rheumatology. Microscopic polyangiitis is an ill-defined autoimmune disease characterized by a systemic, pauci-immune, necrotizing, small-vessel vasculitis without clinical or pathological evidence of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation The presence of such complexes did not correlate well with the presence or absence of chronic active hepatitis or polyarteritis nodosa. These and other data are interpreted as suggesting that, although the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis and polyarteritis nodosa most probably involves immune mechanisms, these are not mediated by pathogenic. The dog was moribund after 1 week of illness and was euthanatized. Necropsy disclosed uncommon lesions comparable to those of polyarteritis nodosa and rheumatic heart disease of human beings. The pathogenesis of the arterial and cardiac lesions was not established, but was consistent with that of an immune-mediated mechanism Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a condition involving necrotizing vasculitis in small and medium-sized arteries [].It can often occur in various organs, with approximately half of patients having gastrointestinal involvement [2, 3].Development of gastrointestinal lesions results from the formation of ulcers or erosions primarily due to ischemic changes with narrowing of the intravascular lumen

Immune Complex–Mediated Small Vessel VasculitisVasculitis
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